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激光与核聚变-

激光与核聚变-

    真正意义上的核聚变研究已经走过了数十年历史,期间科学家提出了多种方法来控制核聚变。但其实关于核聚变的讨论可以追溯到更早以前。早在19世纪60年代,核聚变就已经成为科学家经常争论的话题。但当时人类对核聚变,甚至对物质本质的了解都少之又少。再过了大约70年,到了20世纪30年代,科学家知道所有物质都由原子构成,这些原子都拥有一个由带正电的质子和中性的中子组成的原子核(氢是唯一一个特例,它的原子核只有一个质子,没有中子)。这些知识为日后核聚变的研究奠定了很好基础。 

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  难以驯服的等离子体让科学家们不断受挫,但同时也让他们萌生了另辟蹊径的想法。20世纪70年代能源危机发生时,通往核聚变的另一条平行的研究计划也诞生了,科学家希望这条新的途径能够避免磁约束等离子体中遇到的一些问题。这些技术用许多束激光去压缩和加热一个由氘和氚构成的靶丸。这项研究在美国劳伦斯·利弗莫尔国家实验室展开,一开始使用的只是一个能够发出两束激光的简单试验台。激光功率的提升使试验设备不断升级,1977年启用“湿婆”激光器,1984年又启用了“新星”激光器。每次新激光器的使用都打破了利弗莫尔实验室自己保持的、激光核聚变最强大爆炸的世界纪录,但是跟磁约束一样,它们仍然没能达到“收支”平衡,即聚变释放能量等于激光输入能量。要想做到这一点,利弗莫尔实验室需要一种新激光器,激光功率要在过去的基础上再提高70倍。到了1997年,新激光器开始建造,这就是美国国家点火装置(NIF)。NIF于2009年5月建成完工,轰动一时。今年晚些时候,NIF将开始氘-氚聚变实验,这将是人类探索核聚变的又一个重要里程碑。 

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